There are five species of macaques native to Vietnam. These include the long-tailed or crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis), pig-tailed macaque (Macaca leonina), Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), stump-tailed macaque (Macaca arctoides), and the Assamese macaque (Macaca assamensis).

All five of Vietnam’s macaque species are threatened by hunting and trade, mainly to meet demand from abroad, where they are used in cosmetic and biomedical research laboratories. Macaques are also used in traditional medicine, kept as pets in Vietnam, and eaten at wildlife restaurants.